Bihar Board Class 11th English Book Solutions Prose Chapter 4 On The Rule of the Road Text Book Questions and Answers.
Rainbow English Book Class 11 Solutions Chapter 4 On The Rule of the Road
Bihar Board Class 11 English On The Rule of the Road Textual Questions and Answers
A. Work in small groups and discuss these questions :
Does democracy have anything to do with freedom ?
Yes. Democracy without freedom is meaningless. Democracy means freedom of people to choose their government. For this they must have freedom of speech and freedom of movement with fear.
In democracy citizen’s role is of utmost importance. How ?
In democracy citizens have the power to choose their representatives. It is very important that they use this power most judiciously. They should also see that their representatives are doing their duty in the right way.
Why are fundamental rights important to us ?
A citizens has fundamental rights. They are important to be a free citizen of a country. If a person has no fundamental rights he is not a citizen. He/she is a slave.
Have you ever wondered what keeps the traffic move smoothly without running into one another ?
Yes, I know it moves smoothly because it obeys the rule of the road. If vehicles and pedestrians did not obey the rule of the road, there would be confusion and accidents.
B. 1. Answer the following questions briefly :
Why did the old lady refuse to walk on the pavement ?
She refused to walk on the pavement because she believed she had got the liberty to walk where she liked.
How did she cause a chaos ?
By walking in the middle of the road she disobeyed the rule of the road and caused confusion. Everybody was getting in everybody else’s way.
How has the author defined liberty ?
The author has defined liberty as a social contract. It is an adjustment of interests.
‘You have submitted to a curtailment of private liberty in order that you man enjoy a social order which makes your liberty a reality.’ What does the author mean ?
Liberty is not entirely a private matter. We live in society. So no man’s liberty should take away another man’s liberty. By so doing everybody will enjoy a social order and peace.
What is the ‘danger’ the author is referring to in paragraph 2 ?
The author is referring to the danger of a chaos like the one the old lady caused by disobeying the rule of the road. If everybody wants unlimited liberty, there will be chaos.
How is liberty a social contract ?
Liberty is a social contract in the sense that no individual will trample over the liberty of anyone else.
B. 2. Answer the following questions briefly :
Are the rights of the people less important than the rights of the nations ?
No. The rights of the people are as important as the rights of the nations.
Why couldn’t the author read his book during his rail journey ?
He could not read his book because one of the passengers was talking to his friend in a loud and pompous voice.
What does the author want to convey through the illustration of a trombone ?
The author wants to say that everybody has a right to enjoy themselves so long as they do not disturb others.
What two types of reading does the author refer to ? How are they different ?
The author refers to reading for pleasure and reading as a task. The two are different. You won’t mind noise if you are reading for pleasure. But if you are reading as a task, you will expect reasonable quiet.
List the actions for which we “ask no one’s leave”.
Some of the actions referred to in the lesson are :
- Walking down a street in a dressing gown.
- Wearing long hair,
- Walking barefoot,
- Dyeing one’s hair,
- Waxing one’s moustache,
- Wearing tall hat, frock coat and sandals,
- Going to bed late,
- Getting up early, etc.
C. 1. Long Answer Questions :
What does the rule of the road mean ? Give examples to show how necessary it is to preserve order in society.
The rule of the road means the regulations concerning the smooth and orderly movement of vehicles and pedestrians on roads without causing accidents. For example, in India we are supposed to keep to our left. If we want to overtake a vehicle or a pedestrian, we must do it from the right side. In cities, there are different lanes for pedestrians, light vehicles and heavy vehicles, so that no accidents take place. On crossroads there is a policeman or signal lights to regulate the traffic. When the policemen raises his hand or the red light is on, every vehicle must stop so that vehicles from the other channel may move.
Sometimes some people do not care for these rules because they are in a hurry. But they are likely to cause confusion and accidents. Then hurry proves to be very costly. So these rules are meant to help people and not to harass them. The rules are meant for all. If somebody does not obey these rules, no body will follow them. Then there will be confusion and anarchy.
Who, according to A. G. Gardiner, is a civilized man ?
A man who is conscious of his conduct, so as not to interfere in the liberty of his neighbours is a truly civilised man. A civilised man obeys the rules even in small matters. A man is at liberty to enjoy and recreate himself in his house. But a civilised man makes sure that his enjoyment does not interfere with the right of his neighbour to enjoy himself. It does not need doing great – and heroic deeds that makes a man civilised. It is his conduct in small matters of daily life that shows whether a man is civilised or uncivilised.
Unchecked personal liberty would lead to social anarchy. Elaborate giving examples.
Unchecked personal liberty is neither feasible nor desirable. If everybody had their way to do what they liked, there would be chaos. Let us take the example of the traffic on the public highway. Everybody has a right to use it. But if there were no rules, every one would like to walk or drive in the middle of the road. These,,would be collisions not only between vehicles coming from opposite side, but even between slow and fast moving vehicles moving in the same direction. Even now we see that whenever people flout the rule of the road there are jams and accidents. In our daily life we will have no peace. If someone liked to use a loud speaker, his neighbour may have no rest. Students will not be able to concentrate on their studies, or everybody will try to outdo the other in making a noise. That is why there are laws to curtail individual freedom to the extent that there is order in society.
“Our personal liberty of action is restricted by other people’s liberty.” How ? Give three examplse.
As A. G. Gardiner has rightly pointed out, liberty is not an entirely personal affair. It is a social contract. It is an adjustment of interests. If a person has his liberty, so do others. So we all have to reach a compromise. Everybody agrees to curtail their liberty so that others may enjoy their liberty. For example, a passenger in a train has the liberty to talk to his friend. But another passenger has a right to do some serious reading. So the former passenger should not speak so loudly that the other passenger is unable to concentrate. A person wants to listen to songs on his radio at night. He has an absolute right to do so. But he must see that his enjoyment does not disturb his neighbours.
Similarly, while walking or driving on the road we should let others drive and walk too. No one has a right to block the road and hinder other from using the road. He has to walk or drive in such a way that others may enjoy their liberty and use it also.
How can we enjoy personal liberty and also respect the liberty of our neighbours ? Give examples.
We live in a civilised society and we enjoy some rights. We are free citizens and not slaves. Our freedom and rights are protected by our Constitution. But being civilised citizens, we have some duties also. We have a right to life. So do all the people. So we must respect the others’ right to life also. It is our duty to see that our enjoyment of our liberty does not interfere with other’s. No doubt there are so many things that we can do as we please without causing inconvenience to others. We can dress ourselves the way we like.
But we should not make so much noise as to disturb others. If a person wants to smoke, it is his personal choice. He can smoke at home. But he should see that his smoking in a bus or a public place does not offend or harm others. Whether there is a law or no law against an. action, a civilised person respects the feelings of his neighbours and respects their liberty by restraining himself.
A reasonable consideration for the rights or feelings of others is the foundation of social conduct. How ?
No elaborate laws can be made to regulate our social conduct. Our social conduct is governed by traditions and personal behaviour. For example, someone in my neighbour’s family is seriously ill. There is no law to stop me from celebrating my birthday with fun and frolic. But being a good neighbour, I must have a reasonable consideration for the feelings of my neighbour. I should tone down my celebrations in such a way that my neighbours feelings are not hurt. There are so many things that we can do, or avoid doing, just not to hurt others’ feelings. Sometimes there are riots between two groups or communities over trifles which can be avoided. If they have reasonable consideration for each others’ feelings, many quarrels and conflicts can easily be avoided.
C. 2. Group Discussion :
Discuss the following in groups of pairs:
What makes life a pleasant experience : the awareness of one’s rights or consciousness of one’s duties ?
Hints: Rights and duties go hand in hand. If a person is not aware of his rights, he/she is likely to be exploited. In olden days, traders exploited consumers. Now consumers have the right to get what he/she pays for. So he/ she can have his/her rights enforced through consumer courts. Awareness of one’s rights is important in life.
Duties are as important as our rights. Often people want to enjoy their rights but ignore their duties. To keep the environment clean is the duty of every citizen. To stop an illegal activity is the duty of not only the police but every citizen’s duty also. Even our Constitution has assigned certain duties to the citizens. If we want life to be a pleasant experience, we must do our duty to society, to our institution, to our family, to our nation and to the whole humanity.
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
Hints : In our times knowledge is so enormous that we can hope to get only a little of it. Unless we have a little knowledge about everything we cannot use it. So a little knowledge about how to keep fit, how to use the computer, how to drive and how to travel is useful. But sometimes we try to use our little knowledge in such a way as if we know all. We may have a little knowledge of medicines. But to act as a doctor to oneself or to others can be dangerous.
C. 3. Composition :
Write a paragraph in about 100 words on each of the following:
Duties of a citizen
A citizen, has his duties. Our Constitution has assigned some fundamental duties to all citizens of India. Every citizen should try to keep the environment clean. He/she should try to protect forests and not to degrade them. Our rivers and water bodies are getting polluted. It is the duty of every citizen to avoid polluting them. They should not dump garbage etc. into them. There are several monuments in our country. They are our national heritage. Every citizen should protect them from being vandalised. Public ‘ property like trains, buildings, buses, parks are for our welfare. We should protect them. All of in should try to be kind to animals. We should be good citizens and respect the feelings and practices, of all people to whatever religion, region or sex they belong to. Above all we should try to improve our personality and character to be able to serve our nation better.
Role of police in civil society
Every modem civil society needs police for the enforcement of laws and to help the law-abiding citizens. The police is needed to maintain law and order. They keep watch on illegal and immoral activities and bring the culprits to book. But the police should help the people, and it should be fair and free from corruption. The police force should behave and act in a manner that even the poorest and the most helpless person feels free to ask for help. Police is meant to help the citizens and not to harass them. Police should be free from any pressures so that it can work independently without fear or favour.
D. Word-Study :
Ex. 1. Correct the spelling of the following words:
Ex. 2. Look up a dictionary and write two meanings of each of the following words—the one in which it is used in the lesson and the other which is more common:.
foot – general – right – complete – conduct
Foot: (i) pace
(ii) the lower part of the leg, measure of twelve inches general
General: (i) usual
Right: (i) authority
Complete: (i) entire
Conduct: (i) behavior
(ii) mode of action
D. 2. Word-formation :
Read the following sentences carefully:
It is an adjustment of interest
In the above sentence, ‘adjustment’ which is an Abstract Noun has been derived from ‘adjust’ which is a Verb. More words can be derived from ‘adjust’, such as:
adjust adjusted adjusting adjustment adjustable
Write as many words derived from the following verbs as possible in the same way.
D. 3. Word-meaning :
Ex. 1. Find from the lesson, words the meaning of which have been given on the left hand side. The last part of each words is given on the right hand side.
Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words given below: violence mistake peace curse purpose
- Children make …………. while learning.
- Imperialism is a danger for world ………….
- Environment pollution is a …………. for us.
- Explain the …………. of vocational education.
- Gandhiji was against ………….
D. 4. Phrases :
Ex. 1. Read the lessons carefully and find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used. Then use them in sentences of your own :
get in – hang on – settle down
step out – remind of – conscious of
Everybody would be getting in everybody else’s way (Para-1)
…………… the politicians submerged my poor attempts to hang on to my job (Para-7)
I got into a railway carriage at a country station the other morning and settled down for what (Para-6)
But directly we step out of that kingdom …………. (Para-4)
………….. it is just as well to remind ourselves of what the rule of the road means (Para-2)
We are much more conscious of the imperfections of others in this respect than of our own ………….. (Para-5)
Sentences with the use of the said phrases:
We should never try to get in other’s way.
I am hanging on my father.
They have settled down in Mumbai.
She stepped out of the house first time.
The loneliness of my life always remind me of her absence.
I am conscious of my duties.
E. Grammar :
Read the following sentences carefully :
a. If I went on to the top of Helvelly to do it I could please myself but If I do it out in the streets the neighbours will remind me that my liberty to blow the trombone must interfere with their liberty to sleep in quiet.
b. If I had asked him to be good enough to talk in a lower tone I dare to say he would have thought I was a rude fellow.
Ex. 1. Mark the different structures of ‘If-Clausef in the sentences abve and complete the following sentences:
- If Saurnya laboured hard, she ……………..
- If were a bird, I ……………
- If Manish had informed me in time, I …………..
- If it rains today, the farmers ……………..
- If the Indian cricketers had shown greater application, India ……………..
- If Nikhat read it carefuly,she ……………..
- If Saurnya laboured hard, she could pass.
- If were a bird, I would fly to you.
- If Manish had informed me in time, I would have saved his life. ,
- If it rains today, the farmers will do their work in the field.
- If the Indian cricketers had shown greater application, India would /wove won the match.
- If Nikhat read it carefuly, she could understand.
F. Activity :
Ex. 1. Look at the example carefully and fill in the blanks accordingly,