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A. Work in a small group and discuss the question given below:
Suppose you have to climb up the fourth floor of a building with a heavy load on your back. Will, you feel any trouble doing so? Talk about the trouble that you will face.
Climbing on the fourth floor of a building with a heavy load on my back is a very difficult task. Going on the fourth floor makes me quick gasping for breath. I will be sweating and out of breath. Climbing will make me breathing trouble. It will make me weak and painful.
B. 1. Answer the following questions very briefly:
How much load have the Porter on his back?
A twenty-five-kilo load, the porter has on his back.
What distance does the Porter cover in the snows of winter?
The Porter covers six miles distance in the snows of winter.
Who is challenging the mountain?
The Porter is challenging the mountain.
What type of Cap is he wearing?
He is wearing a dirty, sweaty black cap.
What type of smell does the Porter emit?
The Porter smells a sulphur-like sour smell.
B. 2.1. Answer the following questions:
Question 1. What is there on the cliff?
There is a hut on the cliff.
What is the mother searching?
The mother is searching for nettles and vines.
Who is the hero of the mountain?
The porter is the hero of the mountain.
What is meant by lid of night?
It means that the sky is covered with stars. The poet imagines it as a lid of the night.
Who is reigning over the rich kingdom of sleep?
The porter is reigning over the rich kingdom of sleep because he was in deep sleep due to tiredness of his day’s work.
C. 1. Long Answer Questions:
The poet has focused on trials and tribulations of the porter. Elucidate.
Life is full of little trials Neither happiness nor SouTuw is our ultimate destiny or goal Rather it is action that leads us to each new day away from the day that is past. We should work a trial because action and achievement in
the present is what helps one to make our lives remarkable. Tribulation is a : situation which one has to be maintained. While working a time of ribulation (दुःख तकलीफ) appears. Porter bears such tribulation bravely. Thus he gets success.
A mother is searching for nettles and vines who is she? Why is she I searching such things?
She is the mother of the boy who is shivering with cold. :. : She is searching nettles and vines. Nettles have power to remove the pain of hunger. Because her son is hungry she must remove her son’s hunger.
The second thing is vine. If she would get that she must get ride of hunger. i.
Determination, hard work and continuity win the race. Do you agree? Write your opinions with reference to the poem “The sleeping Porter?”
Those who are full of determination, steady and hard-working succeed in the long run. If we are steady in our efforts and go on doing a thing with a strong mental make-up, we can surely win the race. We should consider it as our duty. Duty gives us solace and comfort from the woes of life and gives us the sight to behold its beauty and love. Duty inspires us frail spirits to brave the struggles of life and provides with protection and shelter. This inspiring poem is full of zeal and hope-inspiring one to be a leader and a hero. like the partner who struggles even in poverty and succeeds.
C. 2. Group Discussion.
The Porters are the symbols of hard work.
The Porters are the symbols of hard work. It is true to say. A portion: is an important worker. He carries heavy loads on his head and back. His lot is very hard. His duty inspires us. His life is a symbol of reality, a truth and hard ..: work. Action is the keystone of a complete life as it heralds each new day lays . to rest the day gone by. Porter’s action and hard duty help us to understand something. Just as a porter does hard labour to support his family, he works with full determination and in continuity to get money. We should learn to labour. Our hearts which appear strong and courageous are actually taking us : nearer of our physical deaths. So we should labour constantly as porter does.
All human beings are Porters on this earth.
All human beings are Porters on this earth, is true to say. Every man has to do work to live. One should believe that to work like a porter shows the paths of duty. It is duty towards himself, family, society and towards the nation. Duty serves to overwhelm the futile (निरर्थक) terrors. of failure and grief that haunt us by setting us free from useless temptation. It sets a course : governed by rules and order for us and helps to give peace and respite to tired and weak humanity engaged in the struggle of life. Thus we all are like porters have to do hard work to live a human life.
C. 3. Composition
Write a letter to your mother explaining how labour never goes in vain.
201h March 2012
My Dear Maa,
I was overjoyed to receive your long-awaited letter yesterday. Reading it made me forget my homesickness for a while, and brought forth pleasant memories. My studies are going on at an even pace. I do hard labour. I know honest labour never goes in vain. We all know that our sincere labour for anything often succeed. You know Mamma that a man who works with hear and courage never fails in achieving his aim. It is this that we need to do honest labour to go to great height in life. An easy-going man who depends on chances and fate rarely (शयद ही) reaches the top of life. In true sense that labour not only does it help us in living a life of dignity but also give d. tremendous self-confidence. Hard work and devotion become immortal.
Thus I would also seek your blessings in pursuing this career please give my regards to daddy, and love to my dear sister Pranita.
Your affectionate son
D. Word Study D.1. Dictionary Use:
Write the meanings of the words given below:
consisting of two
Rule = law = कानून
A luggage-carrier = porter = कुली
Curse = evil words = शाप
Under = below = नुचे
Consisting of two = made up of two = दो से बना हुआ
Spot = small mark — दना
Write the antonym for each of the following words:
Comprehensive Based Questions with Answers
Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow each.
1. A twenty-five-kilo load on his back
spine double bent
a six-mile climb up in the snows of winter
naked bones, skeleton-like frail frame
yet facing an uphill task
he is challenging the mountain. [Board Exam. 2011 (A)]
(i) Name the poem and the post.
(ii) Who is described in these lines?
(iii) What does he do?
(iv) What is his task?
(v) Find word from the passage which means: Weak structure.
(i) This stanza has been taken from the poem ‘The sleeping Porter’ and the poet is Laxmi Prasad Devkota.
(ii) A porter is described in these lines.
(iii) He does a work of coolie. Taking a load of twenty-five kilo he climbs a six-mile up the mountain.
(iv) His task is to climb uphill taking heavy load.
(v) Frail frame.
2. He is wearing a black cap
his body is an abode of fleas and lice
his mind very dull
although it emits a sulphur-like sour smell
but what a stout human figure!
(i) Who has been described in this stanza?
(ii) How is his body?
(iii) How is his mind?
(iv) What type of man is he?
(v) Explain : fleas and lice’.
(i) A porter and his alleviation have been described here.
(ii) His body is an abode of fleas and lice.
(iii) His mind is rit wit (ean)
(iv) Though his appearance is penurious condition yet he is a man of bold personality.
(v) Porter’s body is full of insects and lice due to his dirty living. He would not wash his clothes and even his body. In such condition, lice grow in human body.
3. Like a bird.
his heart is twittering, panting
he is sweating and out of breath
A hut on the cliff
his son shivering with cold
woes of hunger
the mother searching for nettles and vines.
(i) How does the poet give us an idea of time?
(ii) What made the poet in grieve?
(iii) Why is the porter’s son shivering?
(iv) Explain nettles and vines.
(i) The porter’s son is shivering with cold. This line shows the idea that it is the time of winter.
(ii) Porter’s family is poor, so his son is shivering with cold, due to lack of warm clothes arid is hungry also. These things make poet in grieve to describe them.
(iii) The porter’s son is shivering with cold, It shows that due to poverty he has no sufficient clothes for the cold weather.
(iv) The poet has used two words, nettles and vines: They have hid den meaning. Nettle is a stinging plant which is used to remove for any sharp pain of body or mind, the string of a whip, northeast wind or hunger. Since the boy woes of hunger, his mother has no food to feed him, so she is searching nettlė plants so that she may remove the pain of hunger.
The second word is Vines. It means any plant which produces like peas,’ grapes or hop. Mother is in search of such plant so that she may get some peas, grapes or hop, so that she may feed him in to get rid of his hunger.
4. Beneath this hero of the mountain
the proud conqueror of nature
are the snow-clad peaks
only the star-studded lid of night.
In this night
the porter is in deep slumber
“reigning over the rich kingdom of sleep.
(i) Who is the conqueror of the nature?
(ii) Why is the porter in deep sleep?
(iii) What is the realisation that comes to the speaker in the end?
(iv) What is the message that the poet wants to convey?
(i) The porter is the conqueror of the nature.
(ii) Because he was dead tired of hard work.
(iii) The speaker is surprised to find that in spite of excessive cold the porter is in deep sleep.
(iv) The concluding lines give a message that we should do our duty. He advises everyone to ‘Labour and wait’. Let us act, with a heart strong enough to face any challenge of destiny, working hard all the while and waiting for the results.
‘It was so typical of her witty to the hilt, understanding to a fault.’ Sketch the character of the girl in the light of this statement.
The girl was very gentle in nature. She represents the latest prototype of a modern educated girl. She feels a kind of remorse in her, But at once she is happy to meet the narrator.
‘The louder I talked about my virtues, the faster I made a fool of myself, ‘Sketch the character of the narrator in the light of this statement.
The narrator has also a sense of remorse as the girl has. He could not define his own tender feeling of love is practical way. She he exposes a natural weakness within himself. He sees himself as a fool for himself.
‘For the first time in my life, I realised I was also ugly from within and despite our eight years of togetherness, her goodness had not rubbed off on me in any way.” What made the narrator feel so?
The narrator was unknown about the innocence and simplicity of a : girl. When she invited the narrator and introduced him with her IAS husband he realised his own slackness and shortcomings.
Has the goodness of someone ever made you feel very mean? Explain.
Yes. Goodness of some elder members in my family and friends have made me to realize my follies and mistakes. I learn much from my elders, senior friends, and teachers.
Why did the narrator leave the girl he loved so passionately? Was he honest in his relation?
According to the terms of marriage, the narrator could not be qualifying the competitive examination of IAS and joined his profession as a journalist. No, he was not honest in his relationship.
Point out the features of the two letters in terms of their format, language, and tone.
The features of two letters are simple exchange of love and affection between a mother and an educated middle-class daughter. The format of the language is old. The language is simple but the tone of the daughter is reactionary. Mother’s tone of language is suggestive.
‘It was only your existence inside me that made me laugh on Why does the daughter say so? What does she mean by ‘laugh on’?
The words ‘laugh on’ have mysterious sense approach: The daughter has got an adverse situation in her in-law’s house. Anyhow she entertains herself recalling in her memory the simple teaching and nature of her own mother.
Comment on the bond between the mother and her daughter.
The bond between the mother and her daughter is that of love, affection and above all womanhood in Indian background.
‘Nobody can ever tell you that you didn’t know how to bring up in your daughter’! What does ‘bring up your daughter’ imply here?
‘Bring up your daughter’ is used in ironic sense. The daughter bears on and tolerates every injustice with her with stoic patience. If there is any complaint against the daughter, her own mother is charged for it. A daughter is taught by her mother how to remain peacefully in her in-law’s house. This is ironical situation yet found in our country so it has been said like that.
Sketch the character of the mother. How far does your mother resemble her?
Mother is an example of stoic patience, love, and affection for her daughter. She warns her daughter to not fill in wrath of male members. Mother has experienced the strange behavior of the daughter’s father. She expresses it in her letter. My mother is a bit different. She never discourages me. She is always ready to quarrel with anyone provided she finds me at right assertion.
Why is the daughter filled with a sense of weariness and emptiness? Have you ever experienced like her?
Daughter’s dream vanished in her in-law’s house. She could not find the situation favorable according to her desire and need. No. I have not experienced it yet and pray god to not to put me in such hostile situation.
What did the mother feel after going through her daughter’s letter?
The mother felt very happy after reading her daughter’s letter. Because it had come after a very long time. She answered her daughter with a sense of high optimism. She wrote, “I believe you can touch the horizon of that infinite.”
How does the mother analyses the situation? Do you agree with clear analysis and the solution that she suggests?
The mother analyses the situation very carefully. She understands everything. No. I don’t agree with such false notion and long term optimism. I believe in tit for tat and immediate decision. I believe girls or women must be respected in every house and contemporary society.
What picture of the status of women in the family is represented in ‘Two Horizons’? Do you find any trace of generation gap in the approach to life shown by the mother and her daughter?
Yes. The status of woman has been depicted in innocent manner. There are two prime instances of generation gap between the daughter and the mother. The daughter does not like bondage but the mother teaches her to bear an everything with stoic patience. Another example is the realistic approach of the daughter. She does not like to remain in false dream. But her mother knows the secret of great optimism. Daughters of modern age cannot be so stoic and an optimist in fiasco.
Suppose you are Sun. There was a party at your house last night in which you were not allowed to attend. How did you feel? and how did you face such situation?
Yes, I am Sun. A party was held at my house last night. I was not allowed to participate in that party. I felt it much. My depth of feeling and subtlety is insight. I wielded with the gleaming blade of irony. I felt isolated and dejected.
Do you think the young children should also have right to attend the party especially designed for adults. Why not? Give reasons.
No, I do not think so. Young children should not have right to attend party especially designed for adults. Because young women and young men gather there to make merry. It is a fine assembly of gay people. Present hearts beat together happily to the accompaniment of music. Music and dance go together. Beautiful women look lovingly at men and the young men reciprocated. Such scenes should not be allowed to be watched by young children. School children are motivated. They will hamper their schooling and natural growth. They will have become a phenomenon and a potent force in making the children wayward and westernised.
A young boy is sometimes reprimanded when he interferes while the elders are talking. Have you ever faced such a situation? Write your views or feelings.
I do not interfere with any body when he is talking with another man. It is out of manner. I have never been reprimanded by anyone. But I feel if anyone is reprimanded he would feel dejected, disturbed and inhumane.
What message does Katherine Mansfield want to give to the readers? Explain.
The writer Katherine Mansfield gives a message to the young children that they should form a good character. Moral instruction starts very early in life. The parents are best equipped to impart them the moral education. They can not only preach but also by percept inculcate good values in the children whose tender minds get suitably molded by the environment at house. They should not allow them to see such ball dancers. They will spoil them.
Who was Mr. Gessler? How did the author know him?
Mr. Gessler was a German shoe-maker who had settled in London. The author knew him since his younghood because he made his father’s boots.
What was the author’s opinion about Mr. Gessler as a shoe-maker?
The author’s opinion about Mr. Gessler as a shoemaker was that he was an artist because he had an artist’s skill, pride, and respect for his trade.
The work style of Mr. Gessler was unique to Explain.
The work; style of Mr. Gessler was unique because he made only ordered boots which were mysterious and wonderful. In shape and fit, in finish and quality of leather, they were the best.
Mr. Gessler was not successful in his trade. Why?
Mr. Gessier made only ordered boots. He only believed in quality in his work. He did not believe in advertisements, offers, and shows through which big firms are selling their products and making hold on the market. As such Mr. Gessler does not prove himself successful in his trade and he dies of slow starvation.
Big firms are selling their products and making hold on the market through advertisements, offers, and big shows. Low scaled and skilled artists are being out of trade. How? Give your own opinion with the reference to the lesson “quality”.
Big firms are selling their products and making hold on the market through big advertisements, offers, and shows. As such low scaled and skilled ones are being out cítrade. In the story “Quality.” I see that Mr. Gessler makes only ordered boots which happen to be mysterious and wonderful and which never fail to fit. In case a customer complains about his shoes he pays back his money. He feels that big firms have no self-respect and they do business by advertisement and not by work. All his money goes in paying the shop-rent“ and purchasing the leather of the best quality. So he has no money to get food and ultimately he dies of slow starvation.
What were the terms and conditions of the bet? Do you think them proper?
The terms and conditions were the lawyers had to remain confined in a cell for fifteen years. The cell was within the house of the banker. During his confinement, the banker had to supply the necessary requisites to the lawyer for example food, wine, books and the means of entertainment. If the lawyer successfully remained within the confinement the banker had to pay two million at stake.
I don’t think them as proper. Because vain longings and rigidity of opinions often give bad results. Ultimately the involved parties get nothing but remorse. Pleasure of gain and pleasure of loss both are futile if real wisdom is perceived.
Why was the banker afraid of honoring the bet?
The lawyer was confined for long period of fifteen years. The banker was very rich but his economic condition had become bleak by the fourteenth fifteenth year of lawyers confinement. So he was being afraid of honoring the bet.
What did the banker do to kill the lawyer?
The banker tapped on the window with his finger, but the prisoner made no movement in the cell. Then the banker cautiously tore the seals from the door and put the key into the lock. The rusty lock gave a hoarse groan and the door creaked. The banker expected instantly to hear a cry of surprise and. the sound of steps. Three minutes passed and it was as quiet inside as it had been before. He made up his mind to enter. He thought the prisoner (the lawyer in confinement) as a devil who was asleep, dreaming the millions. He decided to throw the half-dead thing on the bed, smother him with a pillow and he will be dead. But before this planing, he went on to read what the lawyer had written as a note kept on the table and was fast asleep. Understanding the whole thing the conscience of the banker did not allow to do any misbehavior and he came back to his room.
What did the banker do to know that the.lav’yer had escaped? Why did he weep to read the notes of the lawyer?
The banker instantly went with his servants to the wing and established the escape of his prisoner. To avoid unnecessary rumors he took the paper from the table and, on his return locked it in his safe.
He went to see the innocence and greatness of the lawyer. He kissed the head of the strange man who was lying asleep. The banker continued to weep realizing, his own blunder in life and realizing the ultimate truth of life. Wisdom is far above material wealth. Humanitarian wisdom is acquired through centuries and centuries.
Is betting a good habit?
No, betting is not a good habit. It harms both the participants. The man who is the winner becomes arrogant and accomplishes false pride. The man who is defeated suffers mental agony and tension. Ultimate gain in nothing. So betting is futile.
Is capital punishment justified?
No, Capital punishment is not justified. If so neone is wrong and commits a crime there are so many ways to condemn and punish him. But life of anyone is very precious. If we cannot give it, we should not take it.
What are the symptoms that tell you that you are suffering from any allergic disease? What precaution would you take to overcome it?
When the secure and free system of human body fails to function normally for some time causing terrible reactions against usually harmless
substances in our natural surroundings, it may be called “allergens”. Such .. reaction causes inflammation which in tum can lead to various, symptoms, such as hay fever, eczema, asthma and other conditions popularly referred to as allergies.
As a precautionary measure against the violent reaction of allergies, we must carefully adopt the following measures:—
(a) to wear pollen masks while moving on the grass or doing house cleaning.
(b) We should not allow indoor plants, animals wet clothes and leather, producing pollution and making the surroundings dirty.
(c) In spring season keep windows and door closed.
(d) Wash bedsheets, carpets, and other clothes at short intervals.
(e) In case if one can afford he should use airconditioner in the house and car. as well as air filter and dehumidifier.
Which type of common allergic diseases are generally found in children of 0-6 years of age?
Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the allergic diseases generally found in children of 0-6 years of age. They suffer mostly. due to the aforesaid reasons and become victims of the allergic diseases causing a number of diseases due to it.
What is allergy march? Explain.
In the beginning, allergy often appear in favorable and peaceful conditions in the primary period (age) such as hay fever. It is true that many people gradually develop allergic conditions over many years before they experience any symptoms relating to it. Sometimes, unfortunately, a certain food or drug or an ordinary insect-bite becomes the cause of sudden life-threatening which start as eczema or gastrointestinal problem. Such condition. turns into asthma involving respiratory symptoms.
Therefore this direct path of development is widely referred to as the allergy march.
Name some particular disease which is caused due to weather. Also, mention its remedial measures.
There are certain diseases which are caused due to weather. Some of such diseases are eczema or gastrointestinal problems, asthma, inflammation, etc.
The remedial measures for such diseases is (i) to wear a pollen mask, (ii) to stay indoors in the morning when the pollen count is at its highest
degree and on windy days (iii) to keep the doors and windows closed during 1. heavy pollination season etc.
Can allergic reactions be life-threatening? Name a few of such instances of allergy.
Sometimes allergic reactions can be life-threatening. It becomes fatal if proper precaution is not being taken. As for example eczema, gastro:
intestinal problems, asthma hay fever, etc. are such sort of life-threatening diseases mainly develop due to allergic reactions.
Suggest a few possible ways to avoid allergy.
It is better to avoid the allergic condition than to cure it through medicines and other remedial measures after inviting it due to our negligence. There is a proverb “Prevention is better than cure.”
We must adopt the following measures to avoid allergy:—
(a) Suggestions to avoid allergens.
(i) Wear a pollen mask when moving on the grass or doing house leaning.
(ii) Stay indoors in the morning (when the pollution is at its highest), and on windy days.
(iii) Read and understand food labels (for people with food allergy), just to save from taking contaminated foodstuff.
(iv) Keep windows and doors closed during heavy pollination seasons.
(v) Keep indoor plants and other sources of mildew away from home.
(vi) Don’t allow danger-producing animals in the house.
(vii) Wash sheets, mattress pad, and blankets weekly in hot water (at least 1300F).
(viii) Use physical (insecticide chemical), acaricide or á tannic acid solution.
(b) Some measures for those who can afford:
(i) Use the air-conditioner in the house and car
(ii) Use air fitters.
(iii) Use a dehumidifier.
Suppose you are Munni, the landlord comes to your house and asks you to pay the rent. What will you do then?
I shall tell the landlord that as I have no money at the present time. it is not possible for me to pay him the rent. I shall request him to have pity on me and kindly give me some more time. I shall pay him the same after the harvest. I promise to stick to my words.
Animals also possess the ability to understand human feelings. Elaborate this statement keeping in view the role of Jabra in the story.
Animals also possess the ability to understand human feelings. In the story, Haiku has a pet dog named Jabra. He goes to guard his harvest in the field with his dog Jabra at the January night. It is biting cold. Haiku picks up Jabra and pats his head to get him fall asleep in his lap. Jabra thought himself to be in heaven. Suddenly Jabra picks up the noise of some animals grazing the harvest. Haiku’s special intimacy had produced a new alertness in Jabra. He sprang up and ran out of the shelter and began to bark at the nilgais which had entered the field. Haiku did not go to the field due to biting cold. Seeing the whole field flattened Jabra lay stretched out underneath the shelter as though he were dead. This incident shows that animals do have the ability to understand human feelings.
Haiku didn’t go to the field even when he knew that animals were devastating the crops. Had you been there what would you have done?
I would have rushed to the field to drive away the nilgais who were devastating the field and grazing the harvest. Haiku totally failed to guard his field and save the crops. How could I have allowed my labour to prove futile? How can a farmer prefer sleeping to protecting his crops is beyond my understanding and imagination.
How many characters are there in the story? Whom do you like . most? Give reason for your choice.
There are three characters in the story, namely, Haiku-the farmer, Munni-Halku’s wife, and Jabra-Halku’s pet dog. Of the three characters, I like Munni most. She asks Haiku to tell the landlord that he would pay him the money after the harvest. She also advises Haiku to give up tenant farming which was killing him as whatever he earned went to pay up the arrears. So she asks him to finish with it. She asks him if they were born just to keep paying off debts. She is very dynamic and straight forward. So I like this character most.
Give the main idea of the story.
The main idea of the story is that despite his hard labour Haiku fails to get rid of the debts that he has to pay off to the landlord. In doing so he fails even to buy a blanket to pass the biting cold of the January night. The severity of the cold caused by the gust of wind at night does not allow Haiku to go to his field to drive away the nilgais which were grazing his harvest and devastating his field.
Have you read any fairy tale?
Yes, I have read so many fairy tales, as for example, ‘Alice in the wonderland’.
Do you find its events as real as in life?
No. I don’t find dream’s event as real as in life. When I woke up from sleep I do not find any real events.
Does it have any logical sequence of events?
Dream is a state of mind in which going on around one seem real… psychologists are of the opinion that a man dreams whatever is not fulfilled in his real life. Regarding dream, this is the logical sequence of events.
B. While reading questions:
B.1. Write True (T) or False (F) for the following sentences:
1. Martha tells her stories over and over again.
2. If one watches her eyes, it seems story is told by her beautiful eyes.
3. Her stories were turbulent
4. She would sit with clasped hands round her neck.
5. Martha would tell her stories in greenish-brown valley.
B.1.2. Answer the questions briefly:
What does Martha do in the Hazel glean?
Martha usually tells her sweet stories in the Hazel glean. She made the atmosphere of hazel glean fully alive and lively.
What is the colour of Martha’s eyes?
The colour of Martha’s eyes is clear and grey.
Who are staring at ease?
Children are used to gaze on her with wonder at ease.
How do they sit to listen Martha’s story?
They (Children) sit down on the earth with their heads resting on : their elbow and pay rapt attention to her story..
How were half of the stories said?
Her voice, her chin, and her grave lovely head conveyed half the effect of the story which she was telling. The effect produced by her story was that sult not only of the words used by her but also of her physical features.
B. 2. Fill in the blanks on the basis of your reading of the poem:
Like a dream, you dream…..the night.
Fairies and gnomes stole…..
…… the leaf green light.
And her beauty far……..
Would fade as her voice ran……
B.2.1. Write True (T) or False (F) for the following sentences:
1. Fairies and gnomes stole out Martha’s beauty.
2. Like a dream, her beauty gradually faded away
3. Her voice could be heard until hazel and summer sun and other things faded away.
4. Clouds in the sky are on lower height.
5. Our hearts are shocked.
6. Martha tells her story today.
7. Her stories have tranquil effect.
C.1. Long Answer Questions:
Describe Martha’s physical features.
Martha is a beautiful young lady with lovely physical features. She is described here as very fond of children and they too are equally fond of her company. She was a lovely lady with clear grey eyes, slim hands, a narrow chin, and a grave small lovely head.
Is this poem like a dream? How can you say that?
No, the poem is not like a dream. But its effect is like a dream. Children lost all consciousness, as it were, except that of the dreamy at i mosphere of the past to which the stories of martha related. Martha was able to transport her bewitching mode of narration, and thus she revived her them the glories of the fairyland, which were things of the distant past. The children seemed to have been transported to that distant past and vision of the wonderful land of fairies and gnomes.
How does this poem end?
The story of Martha left on the minds of her young listeners. They had then no consciousness (चेतना) except that of the atmosphere (वातावरण) of the dreamy past to which the story of Martha related. Martha had revived (पुनर्जीवित किया) for them the glories of the fairyland which were things of the distant past. They were almost mysteriously (रहम्यमय रूप से) taken to the world of the past and the vision of that wonderland left them mute.
Do you think that Martha and the children enjoyed stories?
Yes, I think Martha and the children both were enjoying the stories. Martha was one such story-teller. She knew how to create an atmosphere of
make-believe. She was keen interested in telling the stories. She used her appearance, her tone, her gestures (चेहरे का भाव) all contributed (सहायता किया)
to the effect of her stories.
And the children listened to her stories with rapt attention. They were enjoying the stories perfectly. They were so charmed that they began to like imaginatively (काल्पनिक) in the world of dreams and fairies.
Martha begins with happy and tranquil note and ends with sadness. Why does she do so? Explain. …
Martha knew how to create a proper atmosphere to make her stories sound and impressive. The characters of her stories, fairies and ghosts seemed to appear secretly through the green leaves of hazel trees and the faint passing rays of the sun. Her beauty seemed to fade away. This is one of the situation of. : sadness. The second situation of sadness is the misty, faded-greenish light in the glen helped the children to believe as if actually the spirits and the fairies were hiding behind the tree
Explain the mood of the poet when he says “Our hearts stood still in the hush of an age gone by”.
This is the concluding line of the poem Martha by. Walter De La Mare. In this line, the poet describes what the effect of the stories of Martha left on the mind of her children (the poet himself when he was a child).
The stories created such a deep impression on the minds of the children that they seemed to be struck with awe and wonder. Their heart stopped beating and became still like motionless clouds high up in the sky. The. silence and wonder of the distant past left them mute with wonder.
Describe the poet’s feeling when he started the poem.
Walter De La Mare has unique (अनोखा)contribution (देन) to English poetry. He can create an effective and haunting atmosphere. In creating such situation, he imagines delicately and fancifully. The poet himself becomes a story teller like Martha. The poem has been written in a reminiscent (स्मृति उद्दीपक) mood. The poet goes back to the world of his childhood and, shows how happy he was then. He longs to go back to the past. This shows his love for wonder and fantasy. This is feeling of the poet.
E.2. Rearrange the jumble words taken from the lesson.
misl, denb, ryou, .rdwo
Slim, round, bend, our, word.
1. मेरी दादी कहानियाँ सुनयोगी |
2. उनकी आंखोँ आंखों का रंग हल्का भूरा है |
3. कहानियाँ हमारे दिल और दिमाग को सुकून देती है |
4. पहाड़ियों पर बादल थे |
5. उसकी आवाज बहुत प्यारी है |
6. मैने एक सपना देखा |
7. धीरे-धीरे उसकी आवाज कम हो गयी |
8. हमारा दिल बैठ गया |
9. हम उन्हें एकटक देख रहे थे |
10. उसकी आंखो आधी बात कह देती है |
1. My grand mother will tell stories.
2. The colour of her eyes is , grey.
3. Stories comfort our heart and mind.
4. There were clouds on the hills.
5. Her voice is very sweet.
6. I dreamt a dream.
7. Gradually her voice fainted.
8. Our hearts sank
9. We were staring at him/her.
10. Her eyes tell half of the matter.
Comprehensive Based Questions with Answers
Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow each.
1. “Once……Once upon a time…..”
Over and over again,
Martha would tell us her stories.
in the huzel glen.
(i) Who was Martha?
(ii) What is hazel glen?
(iii) Why did Martha begin her stories
(iv) Explain the words : “Would tell”
(i) Martha. is the name of a lady. She was young and would tell stories to children.
(ii) It is a depression or hollow hills, surrounding on all sides by hazel trees?
(iii) This is the traditional way in which all stories of older day’s started. Since the stories related to distant past, their exact period could not be fixed. They were started with a vague denotation of time in the above manner.
2. Hers were those clear gray eyes
You watch, and the story seems
Told by their beautifulness
Tranquil as dreams.
(i) Explain the line : “And the story…. beautifulness.”
(ii) What do you mean by saying” Tranquil as dreams’?
(iii) Explain the words ” ‘You watch.’
(i) It means it appeared as if the stories were told by her not from her mouth but from her beautiful eyes, She filled in most of the details of her stories with the expression of her eyes.
(ii) It means, the stories seemed to have flowed into the heart of the listers quietly, just as dreams creep into the vision silently.
(iii) It means you keep your eyes fixed on the’eyes of Martha because of the charm in her eyes.
3. She’d sit with her two slim hands
Clasped round her bended knees;
While we on our elbows lolled,
And stared at ease.
(i) How did she sit to tell her stories?
(ii) Find the words from the stanza which mean:
(a) lay lazily (b) the children.
(i) She used to sit with bended knees holding them with lean hands.
4. Her voice and her narrow chin.
Her grave small lovely head.
Seemed half the meaning
Of the words she said.
(i) How was her voice?
(ii) Explain the line: “Seemed half…..she said.”
(iii) Find the word from the stanza which means: ‘person is quite serious iņ appearance’.
(i) Her voice was sweet.
(ii) Her voice, her chin, and her grave lovely head conveyed half the effect of the story which she was telling. The effect produced by her story was the result not only of the words used by her but also of her physical features.
5. “Once…Once upon a time….”
Like a dream, you dream in the night.
Fairies and gnomes stole out
in the leaf-green light.
(i) Name the poem and the poet of the poem from this stanza has been taken.
(ii) (a) Explain : (a) ‘Stole out’
(b) ‘In this leaf-green light’
(i) The poem is ‘Martha’ and its poet is Walter de la Mare.
(ii) (a) Stole out means-Stepped out stealthily without the knowledge of anybody.
(b) It means-The glen was surrounded by thick hazel-trees, and hence it was dark.
The sun’s rays penetrated (cos’k fd;k) into the glen through small gaps in the foliage (iUkh) and produced a faint light in the
glen. This light being reflected by green leaves looked green.
6. And her beauty far away
Would fade, as her voice ran on,
Till hazel and summer sun
And all were gone:—
(i) What happened when Martha told her storics?
(ii) Explain the following words:
(a) ran on
(b) all were gone.
(i) When Martha told her stories even the face of Martha seemed to
(ii) (a) Ran on means, continued to ring in their ears.
(b) All were gone-it means, all disappeared from their consciousness.
7. All fordone and forgot;
And like clouds in the height of the sky.
Our hearts stood still in the hush
Of an age gone by.
(i) What does it mean, “All fordone and forget?”
(ii) (a) Explain like clouds…..the sky”
(b) Our hearts stood still.
(i) It means, everything else except the story, having completely vanished from the minds of the listeners.
(ii) (a) Like clouds……the sky means the clouds high up in the sky look stationary or motionless because of distance.
The heart of the children also stopped to beat on account of the feeling of wonder and awe left on their mind by Martha’s Stories.
(b) It means, our hearts failed to beat on account of the feeling of awe and wonder left on our mind by the stories.